The EPA has developed a Biosolids Topic page where you can learn more about: biosolids analytical methods read the EPA’s biosolids publications. Also included on this page are the technical support documents, risk assessment guide, pathogens and vector attraction reduction, along with emerging technologies for Biosolids Management.
The technologies featured can be used to help reduce the volume of residuals and produce biosolids that can be used to help improve soil fertility and tilth, while decreasing the use of inorganic fertilizers and promoting the conservation of energy.
EPA Research published a document that features their strategic long-term research plan.
Biosolids Technology Fact Sheets that are currently available from the EPA are:
- Alkaline Stabilization of Biosolids
- Stabilization of biosolids helps to minimize the potential for odor generation, destroys pathogens (disease causing organisms), and reduces the material’s vector attraction potential.
- Belt Filter Press
- Belt filter presses are one of several methods used to remove water from liquid wastewater residuals.
- Use of Composting for Biosolids Management
- Composting is one of several methods for treating biosolids to create a marketable end product that is easy to handle, store, and use.
- Gravity Thickening
- Thickening is the process by which biosolids are condensed to produce a concentrated solids product.
- Centrifuge Thickening
- Centrifugal thickening and dewatering is a high speed process that uses the force from rapid rotation of a cylindrical bowl to separate wastewater solids from liquid.
- Heat Drying
- Heat drying is an effective biosolids management option for many facilities that desire to reduce biosolids volume while also producing an end product that can be beneficially reused.
- In-Vessel Composting
- Biosolids are primarily organic materials produced during wastewater treatment which may be put to beneficial use. Composting is the biological degradation of organic materials under controlled aerobic conditions. The process is used to stabilize wastewater solids prior to their use as a soil amendment or mulch in landscaping, horticulture, and agriculture.
- Land Application
- Biosolids are primarily organic materials produced during wastewater treatment which may be put to beneficial use. An example of such use is the addition of biosolids to soil to supply nutrients and replenish soil organic matter. This is known as land application.
- Multi Stage Anaerobic Digestion
- Anaerobic digestion stabilizes the organic matter in wastewater solids, reduces pathogens and odors, and reduces the total solids/sludge quantity by converting part of the volatile solids (VS) fraction to biogas.
- Odor Control
- Proper facility design, operation, management, control and careful oversight are necessary to minimize odors. Water quality professionals have a responsibility to mitigate nuisance odors.
- Recessed Plate Filter Press
- Recessed-plate filter presses are used to remove water from liquid wastewater residuals and produce a non-liquid material referred to as “cake”.
- Use of Incineration for Biosolids Management
- Incineration is combustion in the presence of air. Incineration of wastewater solids involves drying the solids and combustion of the volatile fraction of the solids. Combustion can only take place after sufficient water is removed.